I still remember the first time I heard a coyote pack howl as dusk began to settle on the Iowa Great Lakes area.
On a walk at Kettleson Hogsback, the sun started to set above the calm shallow lakes, and a high-pitched howl began in the distance. Another answered it. And another. And another.
My husband and I stopped to listen and watched the reaction of our Olde English Bulldog, who apparently has no instincts and didn't pay attention to the ruckus at all. The howling ended as quickly as it had begun. The coyotes had all found each other as night approached and the nocturnal coyotes banded together.
Coyotes (Canis latrans) are a common sight and sound in Iowa, but as breeding populations of gray wolves (Canis lupus) increase in border states such as Minnesota and Wisconsin, the bigger predator has also been sighted in the northeastern part of the state. It seems unlikely that wolves will make a home in Iowa anytime soon, but it's still interesting to think about as populations increase in our northern neighbors. It's also interesting to see the pretty obvious differences between coyotes and wolves.
Here are five ways to tell the big predators apart, and some hints on how to tell them apart from domesticated dogs as well.
1. Coyotes don't care about humans as much as wolves.
Our environmental education coordinator called coyotes the kings of adaptation, because although they are native to prairies, they have adapted to live in urban environments, suburban areas, forests, meadows and prairies. They have adapted to the presence of people, because where people are is often where they can find food. Wolves, however, are skittish, tend to stick to forest cover and avoid people if at all possible.
2. Coyotes are less picky eaters.
The fact that coyotes will search for food in more urban environments shows that they are less picky eaters than wolves. Coyotes are technically carnivores, meaning that they eat meat. They hunt rabbits, mice and other small mammals and sometimes will prey on deer. However, they also have back molars with large chewing surfaces which makes it easy for them to also eat fruit, grass, insects, trash and even pet food if it is left outside.
Wolves are solely meat-eaters. Gray wolves, found in the continental U.S., prey on large, hoofed animals such as deer, moose, elk and the like. If they need a secondary food source, they will also hunt beaver, hares, birds or small mammals. They will also prey on domesticated livestock or eat carrion --- already dead animals --- if no fresh meat is available.
3. They look significantly different.
Coyotes are quite a bit smaller than are wolves, weighing 15-50 pounds while gray wolves weigh 70-150 pounds. Coyotes also stand at 21-24 inches tall at the shoulder, while wolves grow to 26-32 inches tall. Wolves are also quite a bit longer, from 4.5-6.5 feet from nose to tail. Coyotes max out at 4.5 feet long.
Wolves and coyotes can have very similar coat colors, but their faces vary significantly. A coyote has a narrow and pointed face with a small nose and tall, pointed ears. The gray wolf has a broad head with large nose and short, rounded ears.
Dogs also look different from both coyotes and wolves. Dog ears are usually large relative to their head size, and they usually have quite wide eyes. Wolves and coyotes both have eyes with inner corners that tend to slant downward. Dogs also have typically wider chests, whereas coyotes and wolves have narrow chests with legs that are close together.
4. They have different howls.
A coyote has a high-pitched howl with short bursts that rise and fall. They also intersperse their howls with yips and yaps.
Gray wolves have a lower-pitched howl that is long and drawn out. It can also include growls and barks.
5. Wolves have huge feet.
A coyote track is about 2.5 inches long by 2 inches wide, whereas a wolf track could be as big as an adult hand --- 5 inches long by 4 inches wide. Coyote tracks usually have crisp edges, whereas wolf tracks often are fluffier, especially in winter when they have more hair on their feet.
Coyotes and wolves tend to walk in cleaner patterns than do domesticated dogs, who walk willy-nilly. Wolves also walk with their front and back paw tracks almost overlapping. Dog tracks are more spread out.
Both wolves and coyotes are nocturnal animals, which means that they are most active at night. We've made a fun nocturnal coloring page just for kids. Click the image below to open a PDF of the page to print at home for free!
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